An announcement constitutes a lie provided that a minimum of one of the interlocutors is aware of it to be untrue, but insists or assumes that it is true. If all the parties concerned within the alternate know that the assertion is fake or if none of them know whether it is false or true, then it is fiction or an act of religion.
Lies are about information or about states of being. Lies that pertain to facts can't be rendered true by widespread consensus. But with reference to lies about states of being, if the parties agree something to be the reality their agreement could make it true (alter its reality worth). This is so as a result of statements about states of being are dependent on social context.
Lies both prompt action or inhibit it. Generally, actions taken can convert the lie right into a fact (self-fulfilling lie).
There are eight types of lies:
1. Utilitarian: a lie that's meant to accomplish one thing, a lie that is objective-oriented, a lie whose structure and content are planned to promote or encourage adjustments conducive to the furtherance of the liar’s goals and aspirations;
2. Smokescreen: a lie whose function is to obscure, conceal, or remove true data and thus mislead others (frequent in espionage or military operations);
3. Compassionate: a lie that's geared in direction of sparing different individuals’s feelings, catering to their sensitivities and vulnerabilities, and permitting them to avoid wasting face and keep away from shame and embarrassment. Most white lies are compassionate and empathic;
4. Ceremonial: lies and dissimulations whose operate is to ascertain a pecking order by demonstrating reverence and glossing over facts and behaviors that inconveniently contravene the accepted hierarchy. Manners and etiquette are highly-elaborate forms of ceremonial lying;
5. Compensatory: lies which might be used to disguise the oft-humiliating undeniable fact that we do not know the reality or can’t bear in mind it. Lies of this sort amount to fiction, but with a lot of the interlocutors being unaware of it;
6. Confabulatory: intricate lies that weave a material of alternate actuality which is incessantly an exaggerated form of the liar’s traits, conduct, and private history (although it might probably, in fact, be utterly unrelated to something actual within the confabulator’s life).
7. Inferential: fallacious conclusions or extrapolations based on true assumptions or statements. Most logical fallacies are inferential lies.
8. Hybrid: lies that comprise markers of an occult fact or pathways to true data, allowing its recipients to “learn between the strains”. Hybrid lies are common in authoritarian and totalitarian regimes.
A study of confabulation in pathological narcissism:
Confabulations are an vital part of life. They serve to heal emotional wounds or to stop ones from being inflicted in the first place. They prop-up the confabulator's vanity, regulate his (or her) sense of self-price, and buttress his (or her) self-image. They serve as organizing ideas in social interactions.
Father's wartime heroism, mother's youthful beauty, one's oft-recounted exploits, erstwhile alleged brilliance, and past purported sexual irresistibility - are typical examples of white, fuzzy, coronary heart-warming lies wrapped round a shriveled kernel of truth.
But the distinction between reality and fantasy is rarely fully misplaced. Deep inside, the wholesome confabulator is aware of where facts end and wishful pondering takes over. Father acknowledges he was no warfare hero, although he did his share of combating. Mother understands she was no ravishing beauty, though she may have been attractive. The confabulator realizes that his recounted exploits are overblown, his brilliance exaggerated, and his sexual irresistibility a myth.
Such distinctions by no means rise to the floor because everybody - the confabulator and his audience alike - have a standard interest to take care of the confabulation. To problem the integrity of the confabulator or the veracity of his confabulations is to threaten the very material of family